Tower of Radkan or old solar observatory

The tower of Radkan was built in 660 Hejri = 640 Khorsidi = 1261 A.D. by Khajeh Nasir Tusi's group.The Maragheh observatory built & finished at 660 hejri, at same time.

Tower of Radkan find the first day of all seasons (equinoxes and solstices days) ,and

 leap years.

Tower of Radkan find the midday at all sunny day .

If we watch the stars on top of Radkan towers we can find latitude and azimuth of the stars,

 like telescope.

The tower of RADKAN is a large stone book!

These are some photos from 4 years of my work and research about tower of Radkan  or :

 Borj e Radak e Khajehe Nasir e Tusi !                    

 

  1-   The first sunset in the first day of summer in the tower of Radkan (or the first day of TIR month).

Sunset find summer solstice day

    2 -   The first sunrise in the first day of winter in the tower of Radkan (or the first day of DAY month

Sunrise find winter solstice day.  

 3.      Sunset : The light comes from one window and goes trough another window,  the light find first day of summer solstice in the first day of summer . We are watching Az 300 to Az 120 degree. In middle of tower

4.      Sunrise:  comes from window and goes to another window in the first day of winter and the lights finds first day of winter solstice. You are watching in middle of tower Az 120 to Az 300 degree (astrolabe azimuths).

5.      These are six frames of sunlight on the wall in the afternoon of the last day of spring. Sunlight has different  place to shine on the wall everyday.  Sunlight helps so we can observation.

6.      Copy of An old writing from Hafez Abro , he said : << Khajeh Nasir Tusi in Radak village has a tower with 12 windows that windows shows the first day of every month.>> ?!  

 7.      Astrolabe (JAMEJAMSHID) ! If we draw dimensions X , Y, Z & T in astrolabe , so we can draw a tower of Radkan in astrolabe . I draw that. I call this new draw : ( HENDESEH JAMEJAMSHID ) . This is a new draw & new perspective . Direction of Az 120 degree & Az 300 degree in 37 geographical latitude astrolabe is one direction. So Khajeh Nasir Tusi's group new that. And they made the tower of Radkan  .In this image you can see 37 degree geographical latitude astrolabe & new perspective of radak tower. you can see , astrolabe , tower of radkan , 2 doors , 12 windows ,12 walls , holes , 36 columns , moghantareh , azimuths , time & ...

 8.      In this perspective ( HENDESEH JAMEJAMSHIDI ) we can see tower of Radkan with : 2 doors in one direction, 12 walls , 36 half-columns = 36*10=360 degree, 12 special windows under the dome , one stair with 2 windows & 32 holes around the tower. In the corn, there are 3 big windows with one big hole, 4 triangle small windows, 18 holes & 9 holes.  Azimuths 120 & 300 are in the one direction. Doors , walls ,columns & windows are in the astrolabe azimuths. Why we see many holes & windows in this tower?!

please link for bigger image

9.      This is a simple plan.  36 half columns were built in the 360 degree of ground. Two doors are in one direction & they are in 120az  & 300az. 2 walls were built in the pole direction or meridians & their directions are (180 - 360) az .sunrises & sunsets two times , in one year on the horizon goes 60 degree in the 37 geographical latitude .

36 half columns find  azimuths of our eye. 

please link for bigger image

At first day of the spring , sun comes from

At first day of the summer , sun comes from

At first day of the autumn , sun comes from

At first day of the winter , sun comes from

270  az to  90   az

240  az to 120  az

 270  az to  90   az

 300  az to  60  az

I write 12 signs of zodiac on the 12 walls.In the 270 az & 90 az columns, sun lights & shadows find sundial meridian time or (nimruz) at all sunny days. 

 So Khajeh Nasir Tusi's group knew that. And they made the tower of Radkan from stones & bricks  plus observatory of MARAGHEH.

10.     The first sunrise in the first day of winter (up) az300 -  az120 

and The first sunset   in the first day of summer (down) az120  -  az300

11.      Sunlight comes from window & drop on the door at first day of spring (noruz) .

 Sunlight comes from window & goes out from another at first day of winter & first day of summer.

Radkan Arash (gaz) is 48.66 cm.

12.      I made maket of Radkan tower 1/100 scales. You can see azimuths angel in the columns & sing of zodiacs, door, windows & holes .You are watching 360az  throw 180az. Your watching is throwing to point of pole in top of tower. If you watching throw the tower you can find horizontal angle of your standing point from columns & you know your azimuth .If you watching to top of tower & find your distance to middle of tower you know your vertical angel (altitude) of your eye  . it is like a watching to stars at telescope !

  

 13.       We can find altitude (vertical angel) with astrolabe , teodolit , telescope and tower of Radkan.

Kajeh nasir tusi in Zij ilkhani said :<< if we draw circles in the leveler ground around alshian we can find altitude our eyes from top of alshian >>   

 

14.       We can find altitude (vertical angel) with astrolabe , teodolit , telescope and tower of Radkan.

How can we find the Noruz ( first day of spring or vernal equinox day).

15. you can see all sunlight up & middle of door at 25-12-1380 (16-3-2002) at 8:32

 16.   you can see  half sunlight up & half on down in the middle the door at 29-12-1380 (20-3-2002) at 8:39 .Just one day before Noruz. 

17.   you can see sunlight up  the door at 1-1-1381 (21-3-2002) at 8:34. Complet sunlight drops down  when it comes to the middle of the door at Noruz  .   

 18.  Noruz is the first day , you can see all sunlight on down of the middle of the door (first day of spring or vernal equinox day).  Time is 8:40

19 . New  Noruz ( Spring Equinox day)

19-1  you can see photo no. 16 on top and waiting until 29 - 12 - 1383 or 29 - 12 - 13773

19-2 we had rainy day in NORUZ at1/1/12773 = 1/1/1383 = 20/3/2004

    IN TOWER of RADKAN

20.   In tower of Radkan when the sunlight drops here  , it is Noruz or Mehrgan .  Noruz is the first day of spring or vernal equinox day & Mehregan is the first day of autumn or autumnal equinox day.

21. This is the 2-1-1381 (22-3-2002) you can see sunlight at new place .

How can we find the Mehregan ( first day of autumn or autumnal equinox day).

نوروز به از مهرگان اگر چه                هر دو زَ ما نَند اعتدالي

                                                                                               ناصر خسرو

22.   Mehregan :  you can see all sunlight 96 days after noruz  on the same place in the tower of radkan.  Time is 8:25:30

23. you can see sunlights  at Mehregan or at 1-7-1381 (23-9-2002)

 24.   you can see  half sunlight up & half , on down in the middle the door at 2-7-1381 (24-9-2002) at 8:24 .Just one day after Mehregan. 

25.   you can see half sunlight  at 2-7-1381 (24-9-2002) at 8:24.

Why do we have different clock  time between Noruz and Mehregan ?

At Noruz the Tehran time is 8:40 and at Mehregan is 8:25:30 we have 14:30 minutes difference clock time!

Photos 15 & 18.

I draw this curve of  different sundial time and main time on the back of my astrolabe.

 26.   this is a part of my astrolabe.

We have 15 minutes different  between sundial and main time  at  Noruz and Mehregan.

So the sundial time at Noruz is 8:40-7.4=8:32.6

              and at Mehregan is 8:25.5+7.6=8:33.1

I have 30 second default at my work .

 26a . Borje Radkan  find Noon (Mid day) .

26b . 4 brick = 1 Hand        8 brick=1 ARASH

1 ARASH = 2 Hand = 12 Fingers

How we can used hemisphere of the towers for geographic hemisphere map.

  27-   Old tower

    28 -   Maket of Radkan tower

(Tahdid nahayat alamaken) Bironi at 1000 years ago on his book wrote 

<< I made hemisphere at 10 arash diameter (480 cm) and I draw many cities on that geographic hemisphere.  >> 

  29-   We can draw the cities on the hemisphere in the old observatory  towers.

We can walking around  the hemisphere in the old observatory  towers.

 

When The tower of Radkan was built?

30.  The tower of Radkan was built in 660 Hejri = 640 Khorsidi = 1261 A.D. by Khajeh Nasir Tusi's group.

    The Maragheh observatory built & finished at 660 hejri!

 

 

31. astronomers group

Kaje Nasir Tusi  in zij ilkhani wrote Maregheh observatory  groups was:

 

1-  Kaje Nasir Tusi             

2 - Moayed Aldin Orozi    

3 - Fakher Aldin Maraghi 

4 - Fakher Aldin Ekhlati   

5 - Najm Aldin Dabiran    

 32.  Kaje Nasir Tusi group

go to page 2

33.  15 Bahman mah

 

For another astronomy towers Go to photo page 2

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